3D finite element analysis
A detailed design methodology has been developed which makes extensive use of a proven 3D Finite Element Model of every part of the pipe structure. This methodology is verified with physical testing on pipe sections.
The finite element model enables the detailed effect of a wide range of operational inputs to be simulated, and when validated, provides a powerful engineering tool.
Detailed analysis has been undertaken of the
Hoop and axial stress distributions in every part of every layer, especially around the interlocking ribs.
The criterion for failure is plastic deformation of the interlocking ribs – which is an earlier event than fracture.